The ASHRAE Handbook is published in a series of four volumes, one of which is revised each year, ensuring that no volume is older than four years.
TC 9.1 is responsible for the following chapters in the ASHRAE HVAC SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Handbook:
HVAC Analysis & Selection
This chapter is intended as a guide for the design engineer, builder, facility manager, and student needing to know or reference the analysis and selection process that leads to recommending the optimum system for the job. The approach applies to HVAC con-version, building system upgrades, system retrofits, building renovations and expansion, and new construction for any building: small, medium, large, below grade, at grade, low-rise, and high-rise. This system analysis and selection process helps determine the optimum system(s) for any building, regardless of facility type. Analysis examines objective, subjective, short-term, and long-term goals.
Decentralized Heating & Cooling
For most small to mid-size installations, decentralized cooling and heating is usually preferable to a centralized system (see Chapter 3). Frequently classified as packaged unit systems (al-though many are far from being a single packaged unit), decentralized systems can be found in almost all classes of buildings. They are especially suitable for smaller projects with no central plant, where low initial cost and simplified installation are important. These systems are installed in office buildings, shopping centers, manufacturing plants, schools, health care facilities, hotels, motels, apartments, nursing homes, and other multiple-occupancy dwellings. They are also suited to air conditioning existing buildings with limited life or income potential. Applications also include facilities requiring specialized high performance levels, such as computer rooms and research laboratories.
Although some of the equipment addressed here can be applied as a single unit, this chapter covers applying multiple units to form a complete heating and air-conditioning system for a building and the distribution associated with some of these systems. For guidance on HVAC system selection, see "HVAC Analysis and Selection".
Central Heating & Cooling Plants
Central cooling and/or heating plants generate cooling and/or heating in one location for distribution to multiple locations in one building or an entire campus or neighborhood, and represent approximately 25% of HVAC system applications. Central cooling and heating systems are used in almost all classes of buildings, but particularly in very large buildings and complexes or where there is a high density of energy use. They are especially suited to applications where maximizing equipment service life and using energy and operational workforce efficiently are important.
The following facility types are good candidates for central cooling and/or heating systems: (1) Campus environments with distribution to several buildings; (2) High-rise facilities; (3) Large office buildings; (4) Large public assembly facilities, entertainment complexes, stadiums, arenas, and convention and exhibition centers; (5) Urban centers (e.g., city centers/districts); (6) Shopping malls; (7) Large condominiums, hotels, and apartment complexes; (8) Educational facilities; (9) Hospitals and other health care facilities; (10) Industrial facilities (e.g., pharmaceutical, manufacturing); (11) Large museums and similar institutions; (12) Locations where waste heat is readily available (result of power generation or industrial processes)
This chapter addresses design alternatives that should be considered when centralizing a facility’s cooling and heating sources. Distribution system options and equipment are discussed when they relate to the central equipment, but more information on distribution systems can be found in later chapters.
Air Handling & Distribution
Very early in the design of a new or retrofit building project, the HVAC design engineer must analyze and ultimately select the basic systems, and whether production of primary heating and cooling should be decentralized or central. This chapter covers the options, processes, available equipment, and challenges of all-air systems; for all-water, air-and-water, and local terminal systems. For additional system selection tools, refer to the HVAC System Analysis and Selection Matrix in ASHRAE Handbook Online+ (https://handbook.ashrae.org).
Very early in the design process, the HVAC design engineer must analyze and ultimately select appropriate systems, as discussed in "HVAC Analysis and Selection". Next, production of heating and cooling is selected as decentralized or centralized. Finally, distribution of heating and cooling to the end-use space can be done by an all-air system, or a variety of all-water or air-water systems and local terminals, as discussed in this chapter.
The ASHRAE HVAC SYTEMS & EQUIPMENT HANDBOOK may be purchased from the on-line bookstore by clicking on the highlighted text.
Comment on the Handbook: ASHRAE welcomes your comments on the Handbook or a specific Handbook chapter. To submit a comment about any aspect or part of the Handbook series, you can use the Handbook Comment Form.
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Technical committees develop and sponsor technical sessions at the winter and annual conferences. Information about their future technical program is discussed at each TC meeting and at the TC’s Program Subcommittee meeting.
ASHRAE publishes papers and transactions from presentations at its conference events. In addition, ASHRAE records most of the seminar sessions from its conferences on DVD. These DVDs are ideal for use at chapter meetings, in university courses, or company lunch and learns. Products available from the most recent conference may be found here.
TC 9.1 sponsored theses technical sessions at past conferences.
Summer 2014 - Seattle, WA
Seminar 8 - Case Studies of Energy Reduction in Existing Buildings: Lessons Learned on How Involving Owners and Operators in Design and Execution Creates Successful Long Term Results
•Virtual Conference Chair: Romero
•Saving Energy in the Electric Company Headquarters Building, Rebuilding HVAC Systems While Occupied - Kuempel
•Commissioning and Maintaining a Building during a Floor-by-Floor Renovation - Nicklas
•Retrofits for Laboratory Buildings - Cramm
Summer 2013 - Denver, CO
Sky High Efficient Case Studies
•Virtual Conference Chair: Cramm
•High Efficiency, Direct-Indirect Cooling Application for High Performance Office Building (Trimble) - Madigan
•High-Efficiency Ventilation Air Upgrade at Major Convention Facility - Duda
•High Efficiency, High Profile Riverfront Restaurant HVAC Replacement Without Missing a Serving - Kuempel
Winter 2013 - Dallas, TX
•Virtual Conference Chair: Klock
•What Is Hydraulic Modeling? - Simmons
•Hydraulic Modeling of a University Chilled Water System - Mikulin
Summer 2012 - San Antonio, TX
When Integrated Controls Are Not Integrated
•Virtual Conference Chair: Cramm
•Case Studies: How We Got This Student Union Building Unified - Rimmer
•Case Studies: City Hall Out of Control - Overview - McKew
•Case Studies: Commissioning Finds Project without Control - Conlan
Winter 2012 - Chicago, IL
Case Studies: New Equipment & Applications to Improve Energy Efficiency
•Virtual Conference Chair: Cramm
•Geothermal Upgraded to Heat Recovery Chiller and Variable Refrigerant Flow - Kuempel
•Chilled Water Modeling and Energy Metering for an Existing Chilled Water System Saves Energy - McKew
•Ground Source Central Plant Successes and Lessons Learned - Schwedler
Winter 2011 - Las Vegas, NV
HVAC Security-Lest We Forget
•Virtual Conference Chair: McKew
•HVAC Security: Overview of ASHRAE Handbook Chapter - Cogley
•The New ASHRAE Guideline 29 and Secure HVAC Design - Dobbs
•Checklist Approaches to HVAC Security - Campbell
Technical Committees are responsible for identifying research topics, proposing research projects, selecting bidders, and monitoring research projects funded by ASHRAE. Information about their specific research program is discussed at each TC meeting and at the TC’s Research Subcommittee meeting.
ASHRAE writes standards for the purpose of establishing consensus for: 1) methods of test for use in commerce and 2) performance criteria for use as facilitators with which to guide the industry. ASHRAE publishes the following three types of voluntary consensus standards: Method of Measurement or Test (MOT), Standard Design and Standard Practice. ASHRAE does not write rating standards unless a suitable rating standard will not otherwise be available. ASHRAE is accredited by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and follows ANSI's requirements for due process and standards development. Standards may be purchased at the ASHRAE Bookstore.
TC 9.1 is cognizant or co-cognizant for the following guidelines and standard:
ASHRAE Guideline 0: The Commissioning Process
ASHRAE Guideline 16: Selecting Outdoor, Return, and Relief Dampers for Air-Side Economizer Systems
ASHRAE Guideline 22: Instrumentation for Monitoring Central Chilled Water Plant Efficiency
ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 15: Safety Standard for Refrigeration Systems
Include other activities, such as MTG involvement, into this section.
ASHRAE Technical FAQs are provided as a service to ASHRAE members, users of ASHRAE publications, and the general public. While every effort has been made to ensure their accuracy and reliability, they are advisory and provided for informational purposes only, and in many cases represent only one person’s view. They are not intended and should not be relied on as an official statement of ASHRAE. Technical questions not addressed may be submitted to the ASHRAE Technical Services department at email@example.com.